} margin: 0 0.4em 0 -0.8em; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cb {color:#000;background-color:#D6E0EB;} margin: 0 1.2em 1.5em 0; font-style: normal; background-color: #E9F3FC; (2009); and R. Turvey’s work on composite vulnerability index (2007). .ldc-table a.box-criteria, } padding: .3em .8em; The EVI is a measure of structural vulnerability to economic and environmental shocks .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar4 { color: #fff; background-color: #360; text-align:center; font-size: 1.1em; font-family: 'Oswald',Helvetica,sans-serif; font-weight: 700;} content: '\f0da'; } padding: 2em; background-color: #4f81bd; } background-image: url(https://www.dev.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/bg-world1.png); Various variables have been utilised to measure economic vulnerability. padding: 0 10px; #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper .responsive-tabs .responsive-tabs__list__item--active:hover, .ldc-bw { A vulnerability index is a measure of the exposure of a population to some hazard. /* Tabby style for Resources Section */ .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-bar3 {background-color:#ccc;} padding-left: 0; background-color:#4f81bd; padding: .5em 0; padding: 0 10px; Because of this complex definition, the VAF uses a series of community-based } margin: .2em .5em .2em 0; content: "\f061"; font-size: .8em; content: "\f060"; Social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty : Scheduled caste and scheduled tribes. } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lv {border-left:1px solid #369!important;} .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-th {color:#000;color:#333;text-align:center;} font-size: 2em; border-collapse: collapse; } cursor: pointer; #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper .responsive-tabs .responsive-tabs__panel { padding: 4px; margin-top: 0!important; A retrospective Economic Vulnerability Index. background-position: left top; display: table; In response to the need expressed by the UN General Assembly, an economic vulnerability index (EVI) has been defined by the Committee for Development Policy. } They identify which regions, sectors or system components are particularly affected by climate change, and where there is an urgent need to adapt. a.box-lnob::before { a.box-prod-capacity::before { a.box-global-gov::before, .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar8 { color: #fff; background-color: #369; } The index was developed through consultation and collaboration with countries, institutions and experts across the globe. padding: 4px 0; .ldc-table a.box-graduation, #ldc-eligibility td { font-size: 2em; Economic vulnerability can be defined as the probability that a country's economic development may be hampered by unforeseen exogenous shocks (Guillaumont, 2008; 2009). The new Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI), released by global risks advisory firm Maplecroft, enables organisations to identify areas of risk within their operations, supply chains and investments. } /* Extra spacing for reading blocks */ padding-left: 0; margin: 0; footer li a:focus, The proportion of people below poverty line is not same for all social groups and economic categories in India. } The Index of Economic Resources (IER). #body-footer-text { .borderless ul, .ldc-table a.box-support::before, The results also show that the significant variables affecting households’ vulnerability to economic Learn more in: Investigating the Economic Vulnerability Factors of Emerging Markets After the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 With … a.box-ldcs::before, .ldc-table a.box-criteria::before { color:#fff; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar2 { color: #fff; background-color: #4f81bd; text-align:center;} .ldc-table-wrapper th, .ldc-table-wrapper td, .ldc-table-wrapper table { padding: 4px!important; border:solid #f2f2f2 1px !important;} .member-table td, .ldc-incl:before { } content: none; } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-co {color:#000;background-color:#FFE0C2;} } .col-lg-5ths { Education Additionally, vulnerability is seen as being multi-dimensional and differential, scale dependent, and dynamic in nature. } .col-sm-5ths, } a.box-lnob::before, } a.box-global-gov, padding-left: .6em; .ldc-lbar4 { .ldc-table a.box-history, .lyris-stacked-signup header h3:after { td.ldc-arrowhead span { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar1 { color: #fff; background-color: #369; } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar3 { color: #fff; background-color: #f93; text-align:center;} } display: block; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-ug {color:#999;} padding-bottom: 10px; background-color: #f2f2f2; padding: 0 10px; .borderless table { } } img.author-headshot { First, the vulnerability index would refer to permanent (or quasi-permanent) features over which a country can Defined as the percentage of population that lives in drylands, defined by long term averages of the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (known as aridity index) .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cg {color:#000;background-color:#D6E0CC;} #home-widgets div ul li:before, padding-left: 15px; margin-bottom: 0!important; a.box-lnob, .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-bw {color:#fff;background-color:#4f81bd;} color:#4f81bd; #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper ul.responsive-tabs__list { text-align: center; hr.ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-light {height: 2px;color: #91C2F2;background-color: #91C2F2;border: none;} content: "\f1da"; .ldc-lbar3 { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar5 { color: #fff; background-color: #369; } ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE CONCEPTS AND MEASUREMENTS1 Lino Briguglio, Gordon Cordina, Nadia Farrugia and Stephanie Vella Economics Department, University of Malta Abstract. margin-top: 1em; background-color: #1069B8; economic vulnerability and nurtured resilience, respectively. } Socio economic vulnerability / Basic Needs 2. content: "\f15c"; font-weight: 700; font-family: 'FontAwesome'; #content .rpwe-img { color:#739900; } vertical-align: top; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lbar {background-color:#ccc;} font-family: 'FontAwesome'; .ldc-table a.box-transition, padding-right: 15px; color:#ccc; The paper examines how EVI can be used for international development policy, underlining two main purposes: first—the purpose for which EVI was initially designed—is the identification of the least developed countries (LDCs) that are allowed to receive some preferential treatment in aid and trade matters. border: 0; } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lbar4 {color:#000;background-color: #F0F5E6;} Vulnerability is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities of becoming, or remaining, poor in the coming years. .ldc-table a.box-transition::before, footer h6 { content: "\f1c0"; display: none; padding: .2em .6em 0 0; div.ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-box {width: 120px; padding: 10px; border: 2px solid gray; margin: 0;} .ldc-table a.box-inclusion::before, } } border-bottom: #4d8ec9 solid 2px; background-color: #efefef; border-radius: 4px; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tab2 { color: #000; background-color: #e1e1e1; border: 2px solid #fff!important; height:35px; width:33%; text-align:center;} .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cbar7 { color: #fff; background-color: #360; } padding: 20px 20px; requiring immediate food, water, shelter sanitation or medical assistance), Calculated by dividing the annual number of victims by the total population of the country over a period of 20 years and then taking the simple average, Calculated by the CDP secretariat on the basis of data on the total population from UNPD in its, Highly variable agricultural production is indicative of high vulnerability to natural shocks and often reflects the impacts of natural shocks, including droughts and disturbances in rainfall patterns, Defined as the standard deviation of the difference between agricultural production and its 20-year trend, Calculated by estimating the trend of agricultural production by a mixed-trend linear regression and using the standard deviation of the differences between trend and actual values as a measure of instability, Calculated by the CDP secretariat based on data reported annually by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in its. .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-bar2 { color: #000; background-color: #91C2F2;} vertical-align: middle; float: left; a.box-ldcs, /* Footer */ } .ldc-color-green {color: #360;} height: 1px; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-line1 {border-top: 2px solid #91C2F2!important; width: 100%;} border-top: dotted .3em #ccc; content: "\f08b"; padding-right: .6em; Economic Vulnerability Indices Economic vulnerability indices have been constructed by various authors, including Briguglio (1995, 1997), Briguglio and Galea (2003), Commonwealth Secretariat –Atkins et al (2000), United Nations Committee for Development Policy (2006). } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lvh {border-left:1px solid #369!important; border-bottom:1px solid #369!important;} padding: 8px!important; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-mi {border-bottom: 1px solid #ADC2D6!important;} background-size: contain; } } Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary } .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-it {color:#069;border-bottom: 1px solid #069!important;} font-family: 'FontAwesome'; border: 1px solid #f2f2f2!important; width: 100%; font-weight: normal; font-weight: 700; 1. vertical-align: middle; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tt {color:#069;border-bottom: 2px solid #91C2F2!important;} } line-height: 17px; .ldc-table a.box-glance::before, .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-bt {color:#000;} .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tab3 {color: #000; background-color: #F7FAFC; border-left: 1px solid #069!important; border-right: 1px solid #069!important; border-top: 1px solid #069!important; height:35px; width:170px; text-align:center;} float: left; In this paper, economic vulnerability is defined as the exposure of an economy to Economic Vulnerability Index Rationale Measures of poverty, deprivation, food insecurity do ... definition of the dimension (likewise with the dimensions and sub-indices). padding: 8px!important; line-height: .6em; .ldc-table a.box-reports::before { /* cdp ldc tables */ a.box-nat-reviews::before { } .ldc-table { } /* ------ styling for ldc display / ------ */ } } font-weight: regular; Economic vulnerability was initially developed in the 1990s by Briguglio (1993), Briguglio (1995), Briguglio (1997) and refers to the ‘risk’ to economic resilience (Gnangnon Sena, 2016). } a.box-dev-coop::before, .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-bar1 { color: #000; background-color: #91C2F2;} .ldc_profiles { Census tracts are subdivisions of counties for which the U.S. Census collects statistical data. margin-top: .8em; .ldc-in, color: #4d4d4d; .borderless td, .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-pt {color:#069;} .ldc-table a.box-review::before, .country-reports th.ldc-ind-underline, .country-reports td.ldc-ind-underline { .col-xs-5ths { .ldc-grad:before { Economic Vulnerability Index. " margin-top: 0!important; } Economic and Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) Rationale. border-radius: 5px; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tab4 { color: #000; border-bottom: 1px solid #069!important; height:35px; width:170px; text-align:center;} } margin: .5em 15px; @media (min-width: 1200px) { UNISDR Terminology (2017) Vulnerability is one of the defining components of disaster risk. padding: 0; } Dryland expansion is expected to continue due to global warming, threatening to aggravate poverty as well as food and water insecurity in affected areas, Defined as the percentage of population that lives in drylands, defined by long term averages of the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (known as aridity index), Calculated by dividing the number of people living in arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid lands (i.e., areas with an aridity index between 0.05 and 0.65) by the total population of the country, Calculated by the CDP Secretariat based on climate data obtained from, Remoteness and landlockedness inhibit trade and growth by increasing transportation costs and limiting the possibilities for economic diversification, Defined as a trade-weighted average of a country's distance from world markets, Calculated as the weighted average distance from the nearest trading partners with a cumulative share in world trade of 50 per cent, with market shares as weights and adjusted for landlockedness, Calculated by the CDP Secretariat based on data on bilateral distances between the capitals or major cities in the world, obtained from the, Provides information on the exposure to trade shocks resulting from a concentrated export structure, Measures the product concentration of a country's exports, Expressed as a Herfindahl-Hirschman index, that is the square root of the sum of the squared shares of each commodity (at the three-digit SITC product category) in total exports and normalized so that it can vary between 0 and 1 (in case only one good is exported), Reported regularly by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in its, Provides information on countries' exposure to shocks caused by their economic structure. font-size: 3em; #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper ul.responsive-tabs__list li:before { } } .ldc-table a.box-history::before, Abstract: As an answer to a need expressed by the UN General Assembly an Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI) has been defined by the Committee for Development Policy. .ldc_profiles td { background: #f2f2f2; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-mi1 {border-bottom: 1px solid #cccccc!important;} .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-lbar3 {color:#fff;text-align:center;background-color: #4f81bd;} This method of defining vulnerability in terms of inherent features and resilience in terms of policy-induced changes has a number of advantages. .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-bar4 {background-color:#000;} /* Body Footer */ width: 20%; content: none; color: gray; width: 3em; #sidebar-right div ul li:before { And second, EVI is to be used, in addition to other traditional measures, as a criterion for aid allocation between developing countries. font-size: 1.1em; Through such an index "diverse issues can be combined into a standardised framework...making comparisons possible". .ldc-table a.box-inclusion::before { border: 1px solid #4f81bd; vertical-align: middle; } .ldc-table a.box-reports::before, border: 1px solid #4f81bd; .col-md-5ths { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-ut {color:#069;} padding: .5em 0; Literature from this perspective focuses on the multidimensionality of poverty … border: 1px solid #e3e3e3; #content #rss-6 ul, Read more >>, /* ----------------------------------------- */ } } .ldc-grad { .ldc-table a.box-glance, The concept of social vulnerability has been incorporated into both the hazards and economic literature. The SVI indicates the relative vulnerability of every U.S. Census tract. Instability of exports of goods and services, Share of population in low elevated coastal zones, Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDP, Note by the CDP Secretariat on measuring remoteness for the identification of LDCs (August 2015), Covid-19 threatens to have devastating effects on the least developed countries (LDC). .ldc-table a.box-support, .ldc-table .box { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-sm {color:#000;} For instance, indicators from the physical sciences can be combined with … content: "\f061"; float: left; #content #rss-6 ul { } Abstract and Figures In this paper, economic vulnerability is defined as the exposure of an economy to exogenous shocks, arising out of economic openness, while economic resilience is defined … table#ldc-reporting, #ldc-reporting th, #ldc-reporting td { .ldc-dg { .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-yt {color:#069;} content: "\f060"; /* ----------------------------------------- */, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Secretariat of the Committee for Development Policy, University of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit, Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University, Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales (CEPII), National Accounts Main Aggregates database, National Accounts Main Aggregates Database, Economic and Environmental Vulnerability Indicators, Graduation Preparation & Smooth Transition, Preparing for graduation: meeting in Lao PDR ahead of CDP Triennial Review, UNCDF-OECD Report Focuses on Potential of Blended Finance for LDCs’ Response to Covid-19, LDCs and climate ambition: the Thimphu Ambition Summit, LDCs at the WTO: Proposals for extension of LDC support measures for a period after graduation, Office of ECOSOC Support and Coordination, Division for Social Policy and Development, Division for Public Administration and Development Management, Drylands are particularly vulnerable to climate change and other shocks (desertification, land degradation, drought, wildfires, heat stress). } float: left; .ldc-table a.box-glance::before { float: left; /* ----------------------------------------- */ border: 0; background-color: #414042; padding-top: 1em; font-size: 14px; position: relative; In response to the need expressed by the UN General Assembly, an economic vulnerability index (EVI) has been defined by the Committee for Development Policy. #footer-wrapper { #ldc-eligibility td { .borderless li { text-align: center; font-family: 'FontAwesome'; The (successor) Committee for Development Policy, in anticipation of the 2000 review of the list of LDCs, constructed a composite Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI)2. #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper ul.responsive-tabs__list li { font-family: 'FontAwesome'; width: 20%; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-ti {color:#000;color:#000;background-color:#E9F3FC;text-align:center;} } font-size: 12px; } } /* ----------------------------------------- */ table.country-reports { ECOSOC and the General Assembly of an economic vulnerability criterion --among other criteria-- for identifying LDCs. It recalls the conceptual and empirical grounds of the index, considers the … margin: .1em!important; content: "\f274"; border-top: 1px solid #4D4D4D; float: left; color: #000; border: 1px solid #f2f2f2; This index is designed to be used with economic and social vulnerability indices to provide insights into the processes that can negatively influence the sustainable development of … We argue that such an inclusion is legitimate for both reasons of effectiveness and equity. } } Ferdi has contributed in the past to the definition of the Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI), which is one of the three criteria used by the United Nations to identify Least Developed … } font-weight: normal; } WASH 4. .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-ht {color:#069;} } vertical-align: middle; color:#3b5998; color:#ccc; .ldc-table a.box-graduation::before { font-size: 2em; vertical-align: top; /* Content Template: Page Template Default - start */ } } margin: .3em 0 .8em; It evaluates 42 social, economic and environmental factors … .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-ver-dotted {border-left:2px dotted #000!important;} Smallness and structural weakness were } footer { content: "\f085"; .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tr {color:#000;color:#000;background-color:#E9F3FC;text-align:right;} .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-ph {color:#069;vertical-align:top; height:60px;} .ldc-out:before { width: 20%; The Economic Vulnerability Index is a composition of the following eight indicators: 1) population size, 2) remoteness, 3) merchandise … .ldc-lbar5 { background-color:#4f81bd; Food Security 3. #sidebar-right .widget { #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper .responsive-tabs .responsive-tabs__list__item--active, Vulnerability and risk assessment is compulsory in order to plan and implement adaptation measures, and to prioritize resources. .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-sg {color:#000;background-color:#E9F3FC;} .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-tl {color:#000;color:#000;background-color:#E9F3FC;} } The SVI tool ranks the tracts on 14 social factors such as unemployment, lack of vehicle access, and crowded housing. div#sidebar-right.col-md-3 .menu { } #content .responsive-tabs-wrapper .responsive-tabs .responsive-tabs__panel { It recalls the conceptual and empirical grounds of the index, considers the structure of the present EVI, its sensitivity to methodological choices with respect to averaging, as well as related possible improvements, and briefly compares the levels and trends of EVI in various country groups, using a new database from a ‘retrospective EVI’. .ldc-table-wrapper .ldc-cont {color:#000;background-color: #E9F3FC;} /* Content Template: Page Template Default - end */ Typically, the index is a composite of multiple quantitative indicators that via some formula, delivers a single numerical result. /* Bootstrap addin for 5 columns */ Variables and focuses on a different economic vulnerability index definition of Socio-Economic advantage and disadvantage are most vulnerable to economic shocks poverty is! 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