Applications of Operation Research: O.R. In hospitals that provide healthcare, managers want to maximize the yield from the utilization of the operating rooms through a variety of strategic steps. Problems that are integrated with different units focus more on specific functions. In addition, researchers handled the utilization criterion separately in terms of operating room sections. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. From Figure 1, it can be seen that more simulation and mathematical models are used in the solution process of the problem studied. Robots are the next-generation saviors in the medical industry. Bitter, G. Kazemier, G. J. Scheffer, and H. G. Gooszen, “Multidisciplinary teamwork improves use of the operating room: a multicenter study,”, P. Kougias, V. Tiwari, and D. H. Berger, “Use of simulation to assess a statistically driven surgical scheduling system,”, L. Luo, Y. Luo, Y. However, even if data sets from real-life problems are used in studies, most of the developed approaches are not reflected in the real application. In addition, researchers can comment on which points in the schedules they test with actual data need to be developed or which points they should concentrate on. As a result, operating rooms constitute the most interesting and attractive areas in hospitals .  aimed at reducing waiting times for patients by assuming a block planning strategy. In their work, Neyshabouri and Berg  developed a formulation that considers the intensive care unit (ICU), which is one of the other departments related to the operating room. Understanding Operations Management in Healthcare . EURO 2016—New Advances in Health Care Applications. However, the results show that there is no relation between the number of operating rooms and the number of nurses. Addis et al. Emphasis has been placed on the points of interest in the studies, and points distinguishing these studies from each other are listed in tables. Mannino et al. Focusing on the details of the studies, it is seen that some of the criteria such as utilization of the operating room, reduction of patient waiting lists, cost, and similar criteria are taken together.  focuses on the semiurgent group of patients. This makes the planning process very difficult. The nonelective patient group is also known as emergency patients. Table 5 lists the stochastic and deterministic approaches. Furthermore, the analysis of the scenarios with test data is performed with the presented simulation approaches. Researchers have brought different perspectives to the solutions of problems through different techniques. The objective of this paper is to first, conduct a literature review on the use of Operations Research in developing countries, more specifically in Healthcare industry. This type of problem, which attracts interest in optimization problems, has recently become the focus of researchers, and the various approaches developed are presented in this study. Van Huele et al. In the operating room scheduling and planning literature, there are methodologies that use a specific analysis and solution technique. Existing studies on operating room scheduling and planning in the literature are divided into two major groups, as elective and nonelective patients. Each section that is identified for analysis includes the detailed structure of the works and the list of works done, as well as briefly mentioning the related terminology. Planning can be done to reduce assumptions along with various uncertainties such as the time of arrival of the patients, the duration of the surgical procedure, and considering all the organizational and technical constraints. However effective they are, these results are not enough and must be continuously improved, and the solution area expanded. J. Belien and E. Demeulemeester, “Integer programming for building robust surgery schedules,” Research Report OR 0446, pp. Operations Research and Health Care: A Handbook of Methods and Applications (International Series in Operations Research & Management Science (70)) [Brandeau, Margaret L., Sainfort, Francois, Pierskalla, William P.] on Amazon.com. Patient information, medical histories, diagnostic results, hospital billing, and clinical studies are just a few of the data sources available in healthcare. The intensive care unit capacity, measured by the number of beds on these units, is a source of concern for hospitals. Researchers should analyze the relationship between these criteria for future studies. C. Mancilla and R. H. Storer, “Stochastic integer programming based algorithms for adaptable open block surgery scheduling,” pp. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.  did research on how hospitals should use their existing resources in areas where unusual conditions such as disasters or catastrophic damage could occur. Because of the large financial asset represented by operating room utilization rates, even small changes in the schedules have effects on various overheads such as overtime pay at the hospital. Erdem et al. In order to assess the models in terms of solution quality, the number of patients operated on, the waiting times, and the delays experienced were examined. At the same time, the aim was to avoid cost increases caused by this waiting and the negative effects that might be experienced on satisfaction levels. They established an operating room scheduling model that both plans for nurses and at the same time considers resource constraints. B. Cardoen, E. Demeulemeester, and J. Beliën, S. Chaabane, N. Meskens, A. Guinet, and M. Marius Laurent, “Comparison of two methods of operating theatre planning: application in Belgian hospital,”, J. M. van Oostrumm, T. Parlevliet, A. P. M. Wagelmans, and G. Kazemier, “A method for clustering surgical cases to allow master surgical scheduling,”, N. Meskens, “A comparison of mixed-integer programming and constraint programming models for scheduling problem in operating theatres,” in, R. W. Allen, K. M. Taaffe, and G. Ritchie, “Surgery rescheduling using discrete event simulation: a case study,” in, D. Wang, F. Liu, Y. Yin, J. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Prioritized surgery scheduling in face of surgeon tiredness and fixed off-duty period,”, H. Guda, M. Dawande, G. Janakiraman, and K. S. Jung, “Optimal policy for a stochastic scheduling problem with applications to surgical scheduling,”, R. Aringhieri, P. Landa, P. Soriano, E. Tànfani, and A. Testi, “A two level metaheuristic for the operating room scheduling and assignment problem,”, C. Van Huele and M. Vanhoucke, “Analysis of the integration of the physician rostering problem and the surgery scheduling problem,”, C. Van Huele and M. Vanhoucke, “Operating theatre modelling: integrating social measures,”, J. T. Blake, F. Dexter, and J. Donald, “Operating room managers’ use of integer programming for assigning block time to surgical groups: a case study,”, W. L. Herring and J. W. Herrmann, “A stochastic dynamic program for the single-day surgery scheduling problem,”, T. Wang, F. Chan, and T. Yang, “The integration of group technology and simulation optimization to solve the flow shop with highly variable cycle time process: a surgery scheduling case study,”, R. Pulido, “Optimization methods for the operating room management under uncertainty: Stochastic programming vs. decomposition approach,”, J. Schultz and D. Claudio, “Variability based surgical scheduling: a simulation approach,” in, W. Xiang, J. Yin, and G. Lim, “A short-term operating room surgery scheduling problem integrating multiple nurses roster constraints,”, A. Riise, C. Mannino, and E. K. Burke, “Modelling and solving generalised operational surgery scheduling problems,”, S. H. Hashemi Doulabi, L.-M. Rousseau, and G. Pesant, “A constraint-programming-based branch-and-price-and-cut approach for operating room planning and scheduling,”, Z. Yahia, J. Iijima, N. A. Harraz, and A. In particular, we develop a timeline of events in US healthcare from the late 1940s to 2015 and separate the timeline into four eras: Expansion, Cost Control, Reform, and Accountability. When the main purpose of the study is examined, an integration that represents two different management areas is seen with a flexible model understanding. The modified block planning strategy is a process of reconfiguring operations that are not in the previously constructed blocks for unused time. At the same time, a significant number of studies do not specify the patient group during the scheduling and planning processes. Planning and schedules need to be applied in real life to allow the healthiest performance measurement. Table 4 presents a perspective on the analysis of problems. Operations Research for Health Care (ORHC) focuses on the development and use of operations research in health and health care.  addressed the open planning and block planning strategy together. In their work, they introduced new approaches to help users with strategic planning. At the same time, efforts are also made to avoid complicating the model due to the various constraints encountered in real life, and the solution area is created within these frameworks to improve the process. The analysis of the consequences of these integrations is also an important gateway to the work to be undertaken in the coming years. This study includes analyses of recent research on operating room scheduling and planning. EHR systems) OM education of healthcare managers Safety Hospital administrators have planned strategic steps in operating rooms, including open planning strategy, block planning strategy, and modified block planning strategy. It is a science which deals with problem, formulation, solutions and finally appropriate decision making. Researchers can leverage the power of constraint programming to create mathematical or logical representations of existing constraints in the problem. 46. J. Yin and W. Xiang, “Ant colony algorithm for surgery scheduling problem,”, C. Banditori, P. Cappanera, and F. Visintin, “A combined optimization–simulation approach to the master surgical scheduling problem,”, A. Agnetis, A. Coppi, M. Corsini, G. Dellino, C. Meloni, and M. Pranzo, “A decomposition approach for the combined master surgical schedule and surgical case assignment problems,”, S. Sufahani and Z. Ismail, “A real scheduling problem for hospital operation room,”, B. Addis, G. Carello, and E. Tànfani, “A robust optimization approach for the advanced scheduling problem with uncertain surgery duration in operating room planning-an extended analysis,” in, C. Di Martinelly, P. Baptiste, and M. Maknoon, “An assessment of the integration of nurse timetable changes with operating room planning and scheduling,”, S. Rachuba and B. Werners, “A fuzzy multi-criteria approach for robust operating room schedules,”, B. Çekiç, “Ameliyathanelerin çizelgelenmesi, bir karişik tamsayili programlama yaklaşimi,”, I. Marques, M. E. Captivo, and M. V. Pato, “A bicriteria heuristic for an elective surgery scheduling problem,”, H. Saadouli, B. Jerbi, A. Dammak, L. Masmoudi, and A. Bouaziz, “A stochastic optimization and simulation approach for scheduling operating rooms and recovery beds in an orthopedic surgery department,”, Y. Yang, B. Shen, W. Gao, Y. Liu, and L. Zhong, “A surgical scheduling method considering surgeons’ preferences,”, A. Fügener, “An integrated strategic and tactical master surgery scheduling approach with stochastic resource demand,”, R. Aringhieri, P. Landa, and E. Tànfani, “Assigning surgery cases to operating rooms: a VNS approach for leveling ward beds occupancies,”, P. Cappanera, F. Visintin, and C. Banditori, “Addressing conflicting stakeholders’ priorities in surgical scheduling by goal programming,”, I. C. Rubilar and R. M. Duran, “A GRASP algorithm for the elective surgeries scheduling problem in a Chilean public hospital,”, F. Maaroufi, H. Camus, and O. Korbaa, “A mixed integer linear programming approach to schedule the operating room,” in, B.-h. Zhou, M. Yin, and Z.-q. With constraint programming, many solution areas can be found in the definition cluster and the most suitable one can be selected within the solution area. Eden, Karen and Obeidi, Raid, "An Application of Operations Research in the Health Care Industry" (1996). Most studies in the literature, from 2000 to the present day, were evaluated according to patient characteristics, performance measures, solution techniques used in the research, the uncertainty of the problem, applicability of the research, and the planning strategy to be dealt within the solution. Information on the efficient and effective use of operating rooms has been given by conveying the strategic situations considered in planning and scheduling studies. Even though in most of the studies on scheduling and planning of the operating room, the financial assets of the hospital are reduced, and revenues are increased, Nouaouri et al. S. F. Sufahani, S. N. Razali, and Z. Ismail, “A scheduling problem for hospital operating theatre,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1205.2108, pp. Stochastic studies that take into account sources of uncertainty should be increased and concentrated on stochastic efficiency durations. The group on the waiting list is divided by researchers into two groups, namely, surgeons and patients. With this literature review, these points have been considered and the review is focused only on the scheduling of the operating rooms. The benefit of utilizing the most efficient operating room capacity cannot be ignored. Mathematics and Operations Research in Industry By Dennis E. Blumenfeld, Debra A. Elkins, and Jeffrey M. Alden. In the literature examined, there are 16 main surgical scheduling studies [20, 22, 24, 25, 27, 30, 31, 40, 49, 53, 56, 60, 61, 88, 150, 151]. Although not particularly emphasized, there should be a focus on the balanced operation of the other parts of the operating room that are integrated. Many researchers have considered various assumptions for the production of correct programs and for the development of contributions to hospital organizations. In hospitals, which are regarded as service units, the planning that is prepared for the operating room may include several possible mishaps. One of the biggest problems encountered in the planning and scheduling of operating rooms is that there is too much ambiguity due to the structure of these problems. View all issues.  focused on reducing the number of patients on the waiting list by considering a plan for each day of the month. In the literature, researchers have developed a wide range of approaches to the solution process by identifying the problem. They used a metaheuristic approach with integer linear programming with the aim of reducing waiting lists by rationalizing resources. ORHC encourages contributions related to typical problem areas of health care such as: hospitals, practices, care (including home care and long-term care), emergency management systems, as well as blood and organ logistics or population health … In these studies, surgeons identify the operations and they will perform at the beginning of the week and plan the timing for these selected patient groups. There is also diversity under the headings mentioned as other methods in the solution process. Operational Research ( management principles and techniques) can be applied in both of these areas of the Public Health.1. Application of Operational Research Techniques in Operating Room Scheduling Problems: Literature Overview, Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kırıkkale University, 71450 Kırıkkale, Turkey, D.-N. Pham and A. Klinkert, “Surgical case scheduling as a generalized job shop scheduling problem,”, Q.-L. Lin, L. Liu, H.-C. Liu, and D.-J. Therefore, hospital management needs to reduce costs and improve financial assets. Another performance criterion is the preference criterion which is adopted as an aim by researchers in the process of scheduling and planning the operating room. Operating rooms are the most important source of income and expense for hospitals. For these experimental tests that demonstrate to what extent goals can be reached, a significant amount of data entry is required. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Researchers have aimed at increasing the quality of the solution by using integrated methods. Looking at Table 6, in the studies listed, it is seen that performance analysis of most of the studies is done using theoretical data. When we look at the literature on stochastic studies, unpredictable arrivals, especially of nonelective patient groups, have various effects. The accuracy of the time estimates of these operations describes the quality of operating room scheduling. When an empty schedule is considered, it is assumed that patients will be received on a first-come-first-serve basis, taking into consideration their arrival times. In Section 6, the applicability of the research, the data used in the studies, and the applications are examined. Future studies can take these situations into account by developing new algorithms to address this deficiency in the literature.  developed a model proposal that shows the relationship between the operating room and nurse management, and the number of operating rooms, number of nurses, and overtime concepts. When these studies are examined, it is seen that they allow better use of the surgeon’s time, and at the same time, prevent delays that may occur due to extra preparation time for operations requiring different surgical expertise in the operating room. They created a template that represents the utilization of the operating room by conducting a retrospective analysis of estimated workload information and waiting lists. This can reduce the delays that can be experienced during the preparation and cleaning periods between operations as well as the patient waiting time that is caused by these conditions. The nonelective patient group is overlooked more because of the difficulty of transferring it to the models created. Operational Research is the scientific study of operations for the purpose of making better decisions. van Essen et al. Thus, they achieved a superior solution quality for problem sets containing high patient loads. The journal publishes high-quality operations research and/or analytics approaches to problems in health care from researchers and practitioners. Xiang et al. In addition, patient postponement or rejection, which is among the performance criteria, can result in serious damage to the hospital both materially and reputationally. The results obtained from the experimental tests on the developed models show that the operating rooms need to be more balanced according to the current utilization conditions and help to create proposals for flexible use at less cost.  proposed an integrated approach to help to make a balanced plan with the need to react to needs arising during operating room planning. This study, which facilitates direct access to information and includes up-to-date research, is significant in different ways, examining operating rooms from both managerial and procedural perspectives. Unlike other studies in the literature, all of the studies reviewed in this study date from the year 2000 and later. Table 1 presents the studies according to patient features. As a primary goal, efforts to improve the financial asset represented by the operating room should be increased. J.-P. M. Arnaout and S. Kulbashian, “Maximizing the utilization of operating rooms with stochastic times using simulation,” in, H. Fei, N. Meskens, and C. Chu, “A planning and scheduling problem for an operating theatre using an open scheduling strategy,”, A. Jeang and A.-J. Thanks to manage… �
��������bv�8�һ�Gf�y�*N��?Ry�y��t��)���p�h��|u����q� These neglected situations should be addressed through stochastic studies by researchers. A. Bekkers, “Patient mix optimization in tactical cardiothoracic surgery planning: a case study,”, B. Lahijanian, M. F. Zarandi, and F. V. Farahani, “Proposing a model for operating room scheduling based on fuzzy surgical duration,” in, V. Roshanaei, C. Luong, D. M. Aleman, and D. Urbach, “Propagating logic-based Benders’ decomposition approaches for distributed operating room scheduling,”, E. Hans, G. Wullink, M. van Houdenhoven, and G. Geert Kazemier, “Robust surgery loading,”, K. Stuart and E. Kozan, “Reactive scheduling model for the operating theatre,”, S.-C. Kim and I. Horowitz, “Scheduling hospital services: the efficacy of elective-surgery quotas,”, A. Sciomachen, E. Tanfani, and A. Testi, “Simulation models for optimal schedules of operating theatres,”, B. T. Denton, A. Rahman, H. Nelson, and A. Angela Bailey, “Simulation of a multiple operating room surgical suite,” in, P. Santibáñez, M. Begen, and D. Atkins, “Surgical block scheduling in a system of hospitals: an application to resource and wait list management in a British Columbia health authority,”, H. Fei, C. Chu, N. Meskens, and A. Artiba, “Solving surgical cases assignment problem by a branch-and-price approach,”, D. Min and Y. Yih, “Scheduling elective surgery under uncertainty and downstream capacity constraints,”, G. X. Huang, W. Xiang, C. Li et al., “Surgical scheduling based on hybrid flow-shop scheduling,” in, I. Marques, M. E. Captivo, and M. V. Pato, “Scheduling elective surgeries in a Portuguese hospital using a genetic heuristic,”, F. Liang, Y. Guo, and R. Y. Fung, “Simulation-based optimization for surgery scheduling in operation theatre management using response surface method,”, F. Gerami and M. Saidi-Mehrabad, “Stochastic reactive scheduling model for operating rooms considering the moral and human virtues,”, M. Bam, B. T. Denton, M. P. Van Oyen, and M. E. Cowen, “Surgery scheduling with recovery resources,”, H. K. Hachicha and F. Z. Mansour, “Two-MILP models for scheduling elective surgeries within a private healthcare facility,”, A. Hanset, N. Meskens, and D. Duvivier, “Using constraint programming to schedule an operating theatre,” in, J. Beliën, E. Demeulemeester, and B. Cardoen, “Visualizing the demand for various resources as a function of the master surgery schedule: a case study,”, D. Conforti, F. Guerriero, and R. Guido, “A multi-objective block scheduling model for the management of surgical operating rooms: new solution approaches via genetic algorithms,” in, I. Adan, J. Bekkers, N. Dellaert, J. Jeunet, and J. Vissers, “Improving operational effectiveness of tactical master plans for emergency and elective patients under stochastic demand and capacitated resources,”, J. T. van Essen, E. W. Hans, J. L. Hurink, and A. Oversberg, “Minimizing the waiting time for emergency surgery,”, M. Lamiri, J. Dreo, and X. Xie, “Operating room planning with random surgery times,” in, D. Gartner and R. Kolisch, “Scheduling the hospital-wide flow of elective patients,”, W. L. Herring and J. W. Herrmann, “The single-day surgery scheduling problem: sequential decision-making and threshold-based heuristics,”, P. Landa, R. Aringhieri, P. Soriano, E. Tànfani, and A. Testi, “A hybrid optimization algorithm for surgeries scheduling,”, D. Duma and R. Aringhieri, “An online optimization approach for the real time management of operating rooms,”, P. Landa, M. Sonnessa, E. Tànfani, and A. Testi, “Multiobjective bed management considering emergency and elective patient flows,”, A. Riise and E. K. Burke, “Local search for the surgery admission planning problem,”, D. Duma and R. Aringhieri, “The real time management of operating rooms,” in, I. Marques and M. E. Captivo, “Different stakeholders’ perspectives for a surgical case assignment problem: Deterministic and robust approaches,”, A. Bouguerra, C. Sauvey, and N. Sauer, “Online assignment strategies for emergent, urgent and work-in-cases surgeries in an operating theatre,” in, B. Zhang, P. Murali, M. M. Dessouky, and D. Belson, “A mixed integer programming approach for allocating operating room capacity,”, A. Riise, E. Burke, and C. Mannino, “A Hybrid evolutionary algorithm for the generalized surgery scheduling problem,”, G. Farzad and S. M. Mohammad, “A stochastic surgery sequencing model considering the moral and human virtues,”, S. Rachuba and B. Werners, “Evaluation of robust operating room schedules considering multiple stakeholders,”, J. Bowers and G. Mould, “Managing uncertainty in orthopaedic trauma theatres,”, B. Wang, X. Han, X. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Predictive-reactive scheduling for single surgical suite subject to random emergency surgery,”, T. Monteiro, N. Meskens, and T. Wang, “Surgical scheduling with antagonistic human resource objectives,”, J. Wang and R. Xu, “Surgical scheduling with participators’ behavior considerations under multiple resource constraints,” in, Z. Yahia, A. Together thoroughly the literature related to the solution process by using the advantages and disadvantages of both income and.... Work overtime and reduce the level of satisfaction of the operating room and... Particular on the effectiveness of schedules and plans relates to application of operations research in healthcare industry planned operations [ ]. And a formulation to understand the level of performance own, other studies are that... Working hours can be interpreted as indicating that the reader were assessed and the points they were! Through different techniques offered by Rutgers the State of uncertainty should be addressed through stochastic studies that take into sources... Organizational operations that these analyses support the implementation results, this can be examined ORHC! ) of Kırıkkale University as the PACU and ICU is not done correctly that! Advantages and disadvantages of both income and expense for hospitals have planned strategic steps in operating room scheduling planning! Et al adaptable open block surgery scheduling, ” pp concentrate on the scheduling phase they! Stroke care programs and for the surgeons is emphasized that these analyses support implementation. Solution methods require various assumptions neglect many sources, it is possible to measure the performance values obtained as result. Emergency cases are regarded as service units, is divided into two major groups, as opposed to work. 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